I offer sincere apologies to all my readers for my “radio silence” these many months. I’m deeply touched by those who called or wrote to ask if I were all right. What happened?

I became involved in several other projects that soaked up my creative juices. I’m not a multi-tasker; I like doing things well, but that means doing them serially, one at a time.

(In recent decades, psychologists studying the subject have reported that most people can’t do several simultaneous tasks well — even those who like to think of themselves as multi-taskers. The brain is just not equipped for it)

I continued taking pictures, however — a joyous and welcome break from more routine work. So, I have a hopper full of interesting photos waiting for a little editing and write-up. I hope to post them all (serially) in the months ahead.

Why the rainbow? I was looking for an excuse to publish it, and this post needed a picture. There’s no significance beyond that. It was taken on October 22, 2013 at 5:41 pm.

Yellow Pond Lily
Grassy Arrival

Yellow Pond Lily

Grassy Arrival

Yellow Pond Lily thumbnail
Grassy Arrival thumbnail

I looked out one day and there it was, a yellow water lily. I had never seen one before and had to look it up. I learned they are native to Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia, as well as North America. The common name is “Yellow Pond Lily.” Locally, they’re also called “Spatterdock.”

No doubt it arrived in the belly of a waterbird, or on the hull of a boat. I wonder, is it new to the pond, or has it been around for a while? Does anyone know?

It’s hard to be sure from the photo, but I think this may be the Eurasian species, Nuphar lutea, rather than the North American, eastern native, Nuphar advena (called “Spatterdock”). Apparently, the various Nuphar species have become globalized, along with the human species.

In my reading, I was impressed by the large number and variety of creatures — crawling, walking, swimming, flying — for whom this admired plant is either food or shelter. Although not considered invasive, it can form a thick mat that is hard to eradicate because of rhizomes that go deep into the mud underwater.

A good reference page is Yellow Pond Lily. It is chock full of information in highly readable form. (Scroll down to view the creature chart.) The plant in the top photo is identified as the Eurasian Nuphar luteum or lutea, when almost certainly it is the native species, Nuphar advena, as the page claims. This is not an error, but due to recent changes in how botanists classify these species.

Back on this post, the second photo attempts to show a slimy, grassy plant that appeared late last summer. Anglers passing near shore complained to me about it, saying it kept getting tangled in their lines. One added that he’d been fishing here for many years, and had never seen anything like it. Hopefully, it’ll be gone after the herbicide treatment next spring.

What do the grassy plant and yellow lily have in common? Why do they share this post? Both are new to me and may be new arrivals, both probably can become nuisances if left to grow unchecked, and both were shot on the same day, September 13, 2013.

Related posts: Water Lily II, and Water Lily*. To view slides on this page, click thumbnails, or use left and right keyboard arrows. To open full-screen slide show, click either image and then use keyboard arrows to toggle between them. Press “Esc” key to return.

1. Cottontail, 5:51:31 pm
2. Cottontail, 5:51:39 pm
3. Cottontail, 5:51:41 pm
4. Cottontail, 5:51:53 pm

1. Cottontail, 5:51:31 pm

2. Cottontail, 5:51:39 pm

3. Cottontail, 5:51:41 pm

4. Cottontail, 5:51:53 pm

1. Cottontail, 5:51:31 pm thumbnail
2. Cottontail, 5:51:39 pm thumbnail
3. Cottontail, 5:51:41 pm thumbnail
4. Cottontail, 5:51:53 pm thumbnail

In late spring and early summer, cottontails can be seen all over the neighborhood. As soon as the young are old enough to fend for themselves, the families depart. Where they go, and why, I’m not sure, but I assume it has something to do with the young finding mates and territories of their own.

The rabbit’s main defense against predators is flight, of course, but its flight response is sometimes at odds with an innate sense of curiosity. This comely creature was clearly curious. It performed a little jig for me just outside my window, its legs wanting to flee, but its eyes holding it in place. The sun’s late, golden rays lit up it’s fine fur like a Kleig light on stage a performer. The date was July 24, 2013. All four images were captured in the space of one minute, at 5:51 pm.

The following passage from Wikipedia describes hares, but offers insights into cottontails and other rabbit species, as well:

Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of physical protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born fully furred and with eyes open. They are hence able to fend for themselves soon after birth; they are precocial. By contrast, the related rabbits and cottontail rabbits are altricial, having young that are born blind and hairless.

All rabbits (except the cottontail rabbits) live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares (and cottontail rabbits) live in simple nests above the ground, and usually do not live in groups. Hares are generally larger than rabbits, with longer ears, and have black markings on their fur. Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are kept as house pets.

“Pests!” is an expletive often uttered by gardeners when surveying rabbit damage. But it’s a bad rap. I urge them to reread Robert Frost’s beloved poem, Mending Wall, in which he reminds us that, “Good fences make good neighbours.” A little wire fencing will go a long way to keep peace with these engaging and friendly neighbors.

Related post: Cottontail. To view slides on this page, click thumbnails, or use left and right keyboard arrows. To open full-screen slide show, click any image, then use keyboard arrows to navigate. Press “Esc” key to return.


Note: Scroll over any photo to see its description and date. Click to enlarge.

Ecosystem. In my recent post, The Last Heron,* I linked the departure of many pond birds to the mass die-off of small, Bluegill sunfish in March 2012. A reader questioned this linkage, and even the disappearance of the birds themselves. What follows is not only a rebuttal, but also an opportunity for me to take a fresh look at these issues, and explore further their significance.

I readily acknowledge there may be other explanations for the missing birds — but missing they are, at least as I judge from my window. I’d been used to looking out and seeing a pond teeming with bird life, including two or three Great Blue Herons standing vigil on the rocks off Smith Point, gracefully taking flight when their patience runs out; a small flock of Double-crested Cormorants with infinite patience occupying the archipelago of rocks in mid-pond (top photo); and scores of gulls of various species sunning themselves on the water or soaring on the currents above, their plaintive cries reminding us of their presence.

More rarely have I seen a few Green Herons on those same rocks off Smith Point. More rarely, still, have I spotted the reclusive, Black-crowned Night Heron (photo left), with its fine white plume, at dusk in the same shallow, rocky water.

Now these many, varied birds are all but gone. A sole, black cormorant daily stands vigil on the rocks in mid-pond, along with a few gulls. A large Great Blue Heron shows up off Smith Point at odd times, when the boats are gone. The waterfowl are still here, of course, none fish-eaters: the innumerable Canada Geese, a dozen resident Mallard Ducks, and a resident pair of brilliant white Mute Swans.

Many days, I look out on a vast, vacant waterscape. It reminds me of a book I read many years ago, Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. When it first dawned on me that the birds had gone, the obvious questions sprung to mind. What do these different species have in common — the gulls, the cormorants and the various herons? Of course, they all depend more or less on small fish (see below). When did they begin to leave? Not surprisingly, soon after the small Bluegill sunfish died off by the thousands in March 2012.

The simultaneous departure of so many, varied birds, shortly after that traumatic event, could hardly be coincidental. It’s possible, of course, that whatever killed the fish scared off the birds as well, and thus remains a mystery. More likely, this is just another case, so often observed in nature, of wildlife populations adjusting to the food supply. When the acorns are scarce in a given year, the squirrels will be fewer too. There’s no mystery there!

Well…there was a mystery of sorts: many of the departing birds returned for a few months before leaving for good. Some stayed almost a year before they finally quit. What brought them back, and what prompted their second and final departure? Perhaps they had discovered a few surviving Bluegills, and remained until the prized prey were all but depleted.

On the question of what these birds eat, there’s a wealth of documentary evidence. The Great Blue Heron’s diet is described as follows by Wikipedia, and by others as well (bold added):

The primary food for Great Blue Heron is small fish, though it is also known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of shrimp, crabs, aquatic insects, rodents and other small mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and small birds.

Indeed, I would occasionally see a Great Blue catch a small fish off Smith Point (photo above), then climb onto dry land (in case it drops the fish), reposition it in its bill, and swallow it whole. I don’t know if the Great Blues forage in the adjacent marsh, but I have to wonder what opportunities it can offer them now that it’s choked with Purple Loosestrife. Limited, I suspect.

Double-crested Cormorants enjoy a similar diet, described by Wikipedia as follows (emphasis added):

Food [for cormorants] can be found in the sea, freshwater lakes, and rivers. Like all cormorants, the double-crested dives to find its prey. It mainly eats fish, but will sometimes also eat amphibians and crustaceans. Fish are caught by diving under water. Smaller fish may be eaten while the bird is still beneath the surface but bigger prey is often brought to the surface before it is eaten.

I’ve never seen a cormorant bring a fish to the surface, so I have to assume that here, at least, they take smaller fish like Bluegill, or juvenile Largemouth Bass, which they can swallow while still under water. Nothing I’ve read suggests that they forage in swamps and marshes. To the contrary, all sources state categorically that they hunt fish by diving under water.

Gulls take a wide range of prey — I readily acknowledge — but above all, they prize small fish. I say this from direct observation. Only last year, visiting mergansers drove some Bluegills into shallow water before diving to bring them up one by one. Among the ever-alert gulls, it set off a feeding frenzy, marked by plunge-diving, snatching, and jostling, as these photos record. To watch the gulls taking Bluegills is to understand fully what keeps them on the pond.

In March 2012, when the Bluegills died off, I was preoccupied with health issues. Four months later, I roused myself and called the Mass. Dept. of Ecological Protection (DEP) and the Dept. of Fish and Game (DFG). Among the people I talked to were two field workers who both made the same case — emphatically — that “natural” hypoxia never occurs in spring, but only in winter when there’s prolonged ice cover, and in summer when water temperatures rise. If fish die off in spring, whether by hypoxia or some other cause, it’s not a natural event, but one in which humans have played a role. One of them went so far as to tell me that never in 30 years of field work has he seen a “natural” die-off in spring.

So there’s reason to believe that we humans were implicated, somehow, in the Bluegill die-off. Again, we may never know the exact “how,” but we certainly can air our suspicions. In my previous post on the subject, I pointed to the silted discharge channel as a possible culprit. I suggested that it may slow the natural flushing of the pond’s water, in turn hastening the build-up of either 1) toxins, or 2) decaying organic matter that depletes oxygen. Either scenario could explain the die-off. Both are related to human activity — or in this case a lack of it, a failure to clean the outlet channel. Think of a bathtub with a partially clogged drain: it never quite empties, so new water is added on top of old, and the bathwater is never quite clean.

I don’t believe the pond is facing an existential crisis, at least, not yet. The Bluegills will come back, eventually, and so will the birds. Several recent events offer encouragement. Late last summer, schools of juvenile Bluegills were spotted (by an angler) in the shallows just north of Smith Point. Most days, a second cormorant now joins the vigil on the rocks in mid-pond. And the gulls are slowly recovering their numbers, at least at this end of the pond.

The birds’ departure reminds us — if reminding is needed — that everything in nature is connected, that we can never be too zealous in protecting the pond’s fragile ecosystem, or a day may come when the heron we see is the last we’ll see on the pond. Sadly, the Black-crowned Night Heron shown above — shy and reclusive under the best of circumstances — may be the last of its kind, at least here off Smith Point. Since the opening of a new, concrete boat ramp, small boats have preempted the warm spring and summer evenings, a time when the little night heron usually made its appearance.

Update, December 2013. I’ve stopped and restarted writing this post several times over the last four months, as other demands have intervened. The gull numbers have grown steadily, with several dozen congregating on the water most days before the pond froze over. Hooded and Common Mergansers have both passed through, along with migrating Ruddy Ducks and Buffleheads. None appeared in as large numbers as in years past. All were busy diving — whether for fish or something smaller, I couldn’t tell — with the gulls hovering restlessly overhead in the hope of scraps.

Flooding. If there’s one environmental issue that’s not complicated, it’s flooding. We know what causes it, and what steps are needed to prevent, or at least mitigate, this ever-present danger. We also know its occurrence is more likely and less predictable in this new era of climate change.

The silted channel stirs memories of the two great floods of March 2010, when a blocked culvert caused the pond to overflow its banks (photo left). Widespread property damage was miraculously avoided — just. Another time, and we may not be so lucky. Is that a risk we’re willing to take, possibly to see families lose their homes, when it’s well within our power to prevent such a disaster?

The discharge channel, already burdened by years of neglect, was further silted by those two floods. Cleaning it out has been recommended by two flood-control studies (pdf) eight years apart. Water quality concerns aside, that should be reason enough to proceed with urgency. Sadly, the issue is an orphan. If residents and elected officials pull together, the channel can be restored. But other issues and agendas seemingly take precedence. No one wants to spend precious political capital on this.

Update, March 2014. The tragic mudslide in Washington state, so much in the news lately, should serve as a cautionary tale. Having been warned for years by scientists that the hill was unstable, and despite smaller, premonitory mudslides, an amnesic public continued to build there, while public officials pledged to protect their safety looked the other way.

Related posts: The Last Heron*, Testing the Water*, Great Blue Fishing, Purple Loosestrife, Mono Lake*, Dead Fish*, Snatching Gulls*. Related page: The Great Flood.


Daylilies After Rain | July 21, 2013

As many readers know, daylilies owe their name to their short life span. Opening early in the cool of morning, they wither, exhausted, that very same night. Miraculously, they are replaced the very next morning by fresh, new blooms on the same “scape,” or stem.

These bulbs were planted years ago in a Pachysandra border, where they have thrived ever since, the trumpet-shaped blossoms returning faithfully and in greater numbers spring after spring.

No flowers seem to vary their color more as light conditions change, than these deep red lilies. They can appear magenta as in this photo, shot under an overcast sky, or take on a rustier hue (less blue) in sunnier conditions. This apparent variability flustered me when I first began photographing them years ago, before I fully understood the effects of ambient light.

Click on the photo twice to see an astonishing degree of detail, courtesy of my small, new camera.

July 21, 2013 was a banner day for this blog: The photos for three posts were taken on that day — this and the two preceding posts — and all were of flowers.

Related post: Daylilies. Click image to enlarge it, click again for even greater detail, and click browser’s back arrow to return. Comments are welcome.


Purple Petunias 2I spotted these pretty petunias in the yard of my neighbor, Paula, who has a splendid green thumb. Even during the sizzling heat of July these petunias looked fresh and vital. Her secret? You guessed it: she waters daily.

The right half of the original photograph contained several blooms that had been chomped by a rabbit. I had no choice but to crop the photo. As a rule, I try to avoid such big crops, because they often result in a stilted image. But I was lucky this time, and achieved a graceful, cascading composition. Sharp focus top to bottom adds to the dazzling effect.

Photo was taken July 21, 2013 at 6:18 pm.

Related page: Jackie’s Blooms. Click image to enlarge it, and browser’s back arrow to close. Comments are welcome.